Conclusion

The album offers a snapshot, a temporally and spatially limited glimpse, of a Cantonese Peruvian ecumene strategically crafted to claim social and economic inclusion in Peru without claiming political citizenship. Published at a moment when the threat of Chinese exclusion promised to disrupt that ecumene, the album's narrative hid as much as it revealed, obscuring traces of Cantonese migrant social and cultural practices and downplaying Chinese national belonging in an effort to emphasize localization. The consolidation of settler nation-states forged, in part, through Asian exclusion acts across the Americas and the Pacific had supranational implications, affecting things like the expansion of Chinese commercial circuits into South America and the Caribbean during the era of the Chinese Exclusion Act in the U.S., or the severing of the short-lived Southern Pacific Chinese commercial circuit that linked Latin America and Asia via the Chungwha Navigation Co. after Peru temporarily restricted Chinese migration in 1925, or even the reorientation of Cantonese native place networks and notions of national belonging towards Taiwan after the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and throughout the Cold War era (González, 2017). Thinking about traffics, territories and belonging from a world-historical approach to the study of Asians in the Americas compels us to not lose sight of diasporic geographies that persist, although in constantly shifting dimensions, despite the intensification of nation making. A world-historical approach challenges us to examine the shifting translocal rhythms, routes and spaces of the diasporic ecumene that Chinese migrants made. It also challenges us to explore the global dimensions of these Chinese migrant worlds by examining the ways in which they constitute and are constituted by world-historical processes.

Conclusion